Capital city Ulaanbaatar

Ulaanbaatar capital city is a symbol of struggle for freedom and independence, tradition, religion, politics and history of culture. The capital city base founded with the name of Khuree and Urguu in 1649 by Under Gegeen Zanabazar who was our Mongolian first Bogd, enlightened person, historical and cultural representative.

As recorded in history, Ulaanbaatar had moved 20s times, then today’s Ulaanbaatar is founded by the Tuul river sides in 1778.

In the history, the name of Ulaanbaatar had changed five times as Urgoo (Camp) (1639-1651), Nomiin Huree (Educating camp) (1651-1706), Ikh Huree (great camp) (1706-1911), Niislel Huree (Capital camp) (1912-1921), and Ulaanbaatar city (red hero) (1924-Until today). The first State Congress, convened in 1924, passed a decision on October 29 to rename Niislel Khuree as Ulaanbaatar, legalizing its status as the Capital of the Mongolian People's Republic. From the 1930s, many Russian typical styled apartment blocks, theatre, school buildings, and government building were built by Soviets. Today’s Ulaanbaatar boom with the lots of new styled of museums, galleries, theatre performances and clubs.

Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, is the main gate for trips to any destination within Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar is situated on the bank of the Tuul River and it is surrounded by four sacred and legendary mountains such as Baynzurkh, Chingeltei, Songino-khairkhan, Bogd Khan. Well-known as a sunny, peaceful and open city, Ulaanbaatar is a city of contrasts where modern life comfortably blends with Mongolian traditional lifestyle.

Ulaanbaatar experiences an arid continental climate and has four distinctive seasons: summer, autumn, winter and spring. The summer extends from June to August when the average temperature is 15oC. Snowfall starts intermittently towards the end of the autumn. Winter extends from December to the end of February and is mostly cold with the average monthly temperature in February being –19oC. The minimum temperature reaches (minus) - 40oC during this period. The rainy season is from June to August, when about 74 percent of the annual rainfall occurs. The average annual rainfall for the last 20 years is 267 mm. The rapid population growth of Ulaanbaatar city located in the sensitive ecosystem adds to its vulnerability to natural hazards. Population of Ulaanbaatar city has been growing rapidly, due to mass migration of people from natural hazard prone rural areas to the city. Comparing with historical maps one can see the dramatic increase of urbanization and expansion of settled areas along the river basins and flood prone zones because of the intensive migration from rural to urban area of the last few years (Figure 1). Since 1986 the population of the city has nearly doubled. Existing statistical data shows that there was an increase in the number of poor people living in Ulaanbaatar till 2001. However, for the following years, which have had more intensive rural to urban migration, data on poverty is not available. (

Night seeing Ulaanbaatar, Blue Sky tower

State government building

State troops during the official day